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Lakȟóta Fry Bread - Agúyapi Híŋzi Wígli uŋ Kágapi

Thíŋpsiŋla (Psoralea esculenta), the wild prairie turnip, was one of the staples of the Lakȟóta way of life. It remains one of the Lakȟóta “secret” ingredients and ranks as one of the Lakȟóta sacred foods. The name of this wild vegetable comes from the phrase thíŋta psíŋ kalá, which means “psíŋ scattered on the prairie.” Psíŋ, the wild rice (Zizania aquatica) for the Dakȟóta peoples of the lakes, rivers, and marshes; and psíŋ, the wild prairie turnip for the Lakȟóta peoples of the prairies and plains, ranks among the Siouan peoples like manna. It is a gift from the Great Spirit, Wakȟáŋ Tȟáŋka. The Lakȟóta and Dakȟóta peoples believe that Wakȟáŋ Tȟáŋka: thíŋta psíŋ kalá (scattered psíŋ on the prairie) and mní psíŋ kalá (scattered psíŋ on the water) so that the people might live upon this earth. Pulverized, thíŋpsiŋla (Psoralea esculenta), the wild prairie turnip, made the old time Lakȟóta bread flour,thíŋpsiŋla agúyapi húte blú. When the people first came into this world, they were naked, and had neither claws or talons. They fell prey to the predator wamákȟaškaŋpi (animals) and wakíŋyaŋpi (birds). The predators were much larger and more dangerous in those days. The people cried out to the Great Spirit, Wakȟáŋ Tȟáŋka. Tákuškaŋškaŋ, the Spirit that gives life and movement to all things, caused the predators to decrease in size. To the bear, the wolf, the panther, and the coyote, were given the responsibilities to teach the people the skills of the warrior. To the eagle, the hawk, the owl, and the falcon, were given the responsibilities to teach the people the skills of the hunter. To the buffalo, the elk, the deer, and the antelope, were given the responsibilities to nurture the spirit of the people through their sacrifice to sustain the life of the people. And to the people, were given the responsibilities to take from nature only that which is necessary to sustain life, and to pray and sing over all creation for its renewal. That the creation might thrive and flourish, the Great Spirit, Wakȟáŋ Tȟáŋka, through the Spirit of Tákuškaŋškaŋ, showered upon the earth the spark of life, the living bread, the manna that we Lakȟóta People call psíŋ, and this bread of life, psíŋ, remains today an essential element of our Lakȟóta existence.1










North American Fry Bread Recipies

Lakȟóta Fry Bread Recipe 1

INGREDIENTS:

Yeast Mixture:

  • 2 tablespoons active (quick rise) dry yeast
  • 2 tablespoons sugar
  • 1⁄4 cup warm water

Wet Mixture:

  • 1 cup milk (or half and half)
  • 1⁄4 cup sugar
  • 2 teaspoons melted fat (lard, bacon grease, butter, or margarine)
  • 1⁄2 teaspoon salt
  • 1⁄2 cup milk (or half and half)

Dry Mixture:

  • 4 cups all purpose flour, sifted (thíŋpsiŋla agúyapi húte blú “prairie turnip bread root flour” if available)
  • 2 teaspoons melted fat (lard, bacon grease, butter, or margarine)

Instructions:

Prepare the yeast mixture by combining the yeast, sugar, and warm water. Let this mixture sit aside and get bubbly.

Prepare the wet mixture: Scald the cup of milk (or half and half) in a sauce pan (or 2 minutes in the microwave). Add the melted fat, sugar, and salt. Stir until dissolved. Remove from heat and add the remaining milk(or half and half). When this mixture has cooled down, add the yeast mixture and stir until well mixed together.

Transfer the liquid mixture to a large mixing bowl. Gradually add the flour (thíŋpsiŋla flour, if you can find it) and knead the dough only until it forms into a ball. DO NOT OVER KNEAD THE DOUGH! Coat the dough with the remaining melted fat, cover the mixing bowl with a clean tea towel, and set aside in a warm place to rise for at least 2 hours. The dough will have doubled in size. Punch down and briefly knead the dough a second time. Let the dough rise a second time. Break off fist sized balls of dough, letting them rise a third time, and either pat out or roll out to 1⁄4 inch thickness, frying in very hot oil. The hotter the oil, the less greasy the fry bread. It should not take more than 30 seconds on each side. If it does, the oil is not hot enough. The fry bread should be a golden buckskin (híŋzi) color. Enjoy with soup, stew, chili, or sprinkled with powdered sugar, cinnamon sugar, or with honey or fruit preserves. At powwows the fry bread is essential for the Indian taco. To make an Indian taco, top the fry bread with your favorite taco fillings: seasoned meat and beans, diced tomatoes and peppers, diced onions and shredded lettuce, shredded cheese, sour cream, guacamole, and salsa. Indian tacos will be found on the menus of many restaurants on and near reservations today.


Old Fashioned 2

INGREDIENTS:

  • 4 cups flour
  • 2 tbsp. baking powder
  • 1 tsp. salt
  • 1/2 cup shortening
  • 1 cup warm water

Instructions:

Mix flour, baking powder and salt. Gradually add in the shortening and water. Add only enough water to make dough stick together. Knead dough until smooth, make into fist-sized balls. Cover them with a towel for 10 minutes then pat them out into circles about the size of a pancake. Fry in hot cooking oil in cast iron skillet until brown on both sides. Drain on paper towels, serve with jam.


Traditional2

INGREDIENTS:

  • 1 pkg. dry yeast
  • 3 cups warm water
  • 1 tbsp. salt
  • 1 tbsp. sugar
  • 6 cups flour
  • 2 tbsp. oil
  • 1/2 cup cornmeal

Instructions:

Dissolve yeast in warm water then add salt and sugar. Let stand for 5 minutes covered with a towel. Add flour and oil to liquid mixture. Mix and put on floured bread board and knead until mixture is smooth. Put dough in a greased bowl, cover with towel and let it rise for 1 1/2 hours. Remove from bowl and put on bread board, knead in the 1/2 cornmeal. Make dough into 2 balls rolling each into 12 inch circles 1/2 inch thick. Cut into 2 inch squares and drop into hot cooking oil. (Works best with cast iron skillet.) Fry 5 to 6 pieces at a time for only a few moments. Drain on paper towel and sprinkle with white powdered sugar.


Blackfeet3

INGREDIENTS:

  • 4 cups flour
  • 1 Tbsp. powdered milk
  • 1 Tbsp. baking powder
  • 1 tsp. salt
  • 1 1/2 cups warm water
  • Oil for frying

Instructions:

Mix all dry ingredients thoroughly. Add water. Knead until soft, then set aside for one hour. Shape into small balls. Flatten each ball into a circle with or rolling pin or by hand. Fry in a skillet half-full of oil until golden brown on both sides.


Cherokee2

INGREDIENTS:

  • 1 cup flour
  • 1/2 tsp. salt
  • 2 tsp. baking powder
  • 3/4 cup milk

Instructions:

Mix ingredients adding more flour if necessary to make a stiff dough. Roll out the dough on a floured board till very thin. Cut into strips 2 X 3 inches and drop in hot cooking oil. Brown on both sides. Serve hot with honey.


Chickasaw2

INGREDIENTS:

  • 2 cups sifted flour
  • 1/2 tsp. salt
  • 4 tsp. baking powder
  • 1 egg
  • 1/2 cup warm milk

Instructions:

Stir first three ingredients then stir in the beaten egg. Add milk to make the dough soft. Roll it out on floured bread board, knead lightly. Roll dough out to 1/2 inch thick. Cut into strips 2 X 3 inches and slit the center. Drop into hot cooking oil and brown on both sides. Serve hot.


Creek2

INGREDIENTS:

  • 2 cups flour
  • 1 cup buttermilk
  • 1 tbsp. baking powder
  • 1/4 tsp. salt

Instructions:

Sift flour,salt and baking powder then add milk and more flour to make dough stiff. Roll out onto floured bread board and cut into 4 X 4 squares with a slit in the center. Fry in hot cooking oil until golden brown. Drain on plate with paper towels.


Navajo #13

INGREDIENTS:

  • 1 cup flour
  • 1 teaspoon baking powder
  • 1/4 cup powdered milk
  • 1/4 teaspoon salt
  • warm water

Instructions:

Combine the ingredients and slowly add enough warm water to form dough. On a lightly floured surface, knead dough until it is smooth soft and not sticky. Cover and let rest 1 hour. Shape into small balls and pat into flat circles about 1/4-1/2 inch thick. Set aside.

In skillet, heat 1/2 inch vegetable oil. Brown dough circles on each side and drain on paper towels.

Serve with chile beans and your favorite taco toppings for "Navajo Tacos."


Navajo #23

INGREDIENTS:

  • 3 cups unbleached flour, sifted
  • 1/2 cup dry powdered milk
  • 1 Tbsp. baking powder
  • 1/2 tsp. salt
  • 1/2 cup warm water or milk
  • 2 quarts oil for deep frying

Instructions:

Combine the first 5 ingredients in a large mixing bowl and knead until smooth and soft, but not sticky. Depending on the altitude and humidity, you may need to adjust the liquid or the flour, so go slowly and balance accordingly. Be careful not to overwork the dough, or it will become tough and chewy. Brush a tablespoon of oil over the finished dough and allow it to rest 20 minutes to 2 hours in a bowl covered with a damp cloth. After the dough has rested, heat the oil in a broad, deep frying pan or kettle until it reaches a low boil (375º). Pull off egg-sized balls of dough and quickly roll, pull, and path them out into large, plate-sized rounds. They should be thin in the middle and about 1/4 inch thick at the edges. Carefully ease each piece of flattened dough into the hot, boiling oil, one at a time. Using a long-handled cooking fork or tongs, turn the dough one time. Allow about 2 minutes cooking time per side. When golden brown, lift from oil, shake gently to remove bulk of oil, and place on layered brown paper or paper towels to finish draining.

Serve hot with honey, jelly, fine powdered sugar, wojape, or various meat toppings.

Hint: The magic is in frying the bread quickly! The hotter the oil, the less time it takes to cook. The less time it takes to cook, the lighter the texture and lower the fat content.


Osage2

INGREDIENTS:

  • 4 cups all purpose flour
  • 2 teaspoon salt
  • 1 1/2 tablespoon baking powder
  • 1 tablespoon melted shortening
  • 2 cups warm milk
  • Shortening for deep frying

Instructions:

Sift flour, salt and baking powder into bowl. Stir in shortening and milk. Knead the dough into a ball. Roll out dough on lightly floured board. Cut into diamond shapes and slice a slit in the center.

Heat shortening in deep fryer to 370 degrees. Fry 2 or 3 at a time until golden brown on both sides. Drain on paper towels.


Seminole2

INGREDIENTS:

  • 2 cups flour
  • 3 teaspoon baking powder
  • 1 cup milk
  • 1 teaspoon salt

Instructions:

Mix flour, baking powder and salt. Add milk gradually making sure the dough is stiff. Put on floured bread board and pat it out with your hands until it is 1/2 inch thick. Cut into strips with a slit in the center. Fry in hot oil until both sides are golden brown.


Pumpkin Fry Bread4

INGREDIENTS:

  • 2 cups sifted flour
  • 1/2 tsp. salt
  • 4 tsp. baking powder
  • 1 egg
  • 1/2 cup warm milk

Pumpkin Mixture:

  • 2 cups fresh pumpkin or 1-16oz. can pumpkin
  • 1 tbsp. milk or water
  • 3/4 cups brown sugar
  • 1/4 tsp. cinnamon
  • 1/4 tsp. nutmeg
  • 1/4 tsp. vanilla

Instructions:

Stir first three ingredients then stir in the beaten egg. Mix in pumpkin mixture, then add slowly the 1/2 cup of warm milk to make the dough soft. Roll it out on floured bread board, knead lightly. Roll dough out to 1/2 inch thick. Cut into strips 2 X 3 inches and slit the center.

Drop into hot cooking oil and brown on both sides. Serve hot with butter or powdered sugar.


1Source: "Lakota and Kiowa Recipies" http://uufeaston.org/download/Sermons/Sermons%20-%20by%20Others/Lakota%20Sprituality%20-%20John%20Moore/Lakota%20and%20Kiowa%20Recipes.pdf

2Source: Chickasaw, Creek, Cherokee, Old Fashioned, Osage, Seminole and Traditional recipes courtesy of Phil Konstantine, http://www.americanindian.net

3Source: Blackfeet and Navajo recipes courtesy of http://www.aniwaya.org

4Source: Pumpkin recipie courtesy of "fried bread recipies" https://www.manataka.org/page180.html